Vaccine Dose Important For People Immunocompromise

Vaccine Dose Important For People Immunocompromise

Many countries, including the United States and Britain, are working together to offer a third dose COVID-19 vaccine to immunocompromise people. Why is it that people with weaker immune systems are at the front of the line for the third dose

We continue to distribute COVID-19 vaccines all over the globe. However, new data shows that those with compromised immune systems are not necessarily as protected by the second two doses. For these people, a third dose could prove to especially beneficial, and it should done sooner than expect.

Who Immunocompromise?

Immunocompromised people have immunodeficiencies. This is a condition where part or all of their immune system fails to function as well as it should. In the US, around 2.8% of adults are immunocompromise. The rate in Australia expect to be similar. Two types of immunodeficiency can be broadly classified.

Primary immunodeficiencies, which are rare but often inherited from mutations in our DNA, are very rare. Secondary immunodeficiencies, which are more common after birth, are more common. Malnutrition, certain diseases, cancer, and drug treatment are all possible causes of secondary immunodeficiency. The severity of immunodeficiencies varies depending on the part of the immune system that is missing or how impaired it is.

Moderate to severe forms of primary immunodeficiency, untreat HIV infection, organ transplant recipients and people who have been treat with chemotherapy or high doses immunosuppressive drugs are all include in the moderate-severe end of this spectrum. We know that people with severe immunocompromised are more susceptible to COVID-19-related long-term illness.

How Effective COVID-19 Vaccinations In Immunocompromise Patients?

A preprint from the UK showing that the AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccines are effective in preventing symptoms of COVID-19 in immunocompromise patients, according to a study still to be peer review. Numerous studies, both published and new, have shown that those with severe immunocompromised are more likely to contract breakthrough infections. This is when people infect become infect even though they are fully vaccinate. This is a clear indication that COVID-19 vaccines don’t work well in this group.

People with primary immunodeficiencies may be able to generate immune responses to COVID-19 vaccinations. However, these responses are less common than those seen in healthy people. This could increase the risk of developing breakthrough infections. A typical dose of the Pfizer vaccine will give you antibodies that are detectable against the virus. However, in a study with transplant recipients, only 4 percent of participants generated an immune response. This number rose to 40% after two doses, and 68% after three.

A third dose of the drug is likely to be beneficial to patients with severe immunocompromised. Immunocompromised patients are already receiving additional doses of certain vaccines. It is recommended that people who have had a bone marrow transplant get two doses of the influenza vaccine within the first year.

What About Third Doses For Other People?

Ageing can cause a mild immune deficiency, in addition to the classic immunodeficiencies. This makes older people more vulnerable to certain infections such as COVID-19. Pfizer vaccine studies show that older people have lower immune responses than younger people. Pfizer shared data that showed that a third dose can improve immunity in 65- to 85-year olds.

Some countries offer third doses for older people. Israel, for example, began delivering third doses of boosters to older people in July. Double or even single doses, however, of the AstraZeneca or Pfizer vaccines can protect older adults from severe COVID-19-related diseases. It’s not clear if this is necessary. To achieve optimal immunity against COVID-19, a third dose could be given to all ages. Preprint studies have shown that immunity can slightly decline after the second dose.

Pfizer shared preliminary data that showed that a third dose of the drug can increase immunity in healthy individuals. However, the expansion of third doses to a wider range of people in countries with higher incomes has implications for vaccine equity. Tedros Adhanom Gebreyesus, Director General of the World Health Organization, has called for a halt to third doses to ensure that more people from lower- and middle-income countries can access vaccines. He did however specify that immunocompromised patients should be able to access a third dose.

What Best Time To Offer Third Doses Immunocompromise In Australia?

A third dose of the vaccine could be offered in Australia to immunocompromised patients, and eventually to all. According to media reports, this could be months away. Greg Hunt, Health Minister, has stated that current vaccine agreements have included the possibility of boosting. The Australian regulatory and advisory bodies for vaccines would have to approve a shift to third doses. Initial focus would be on immunocompromised people and high-risk individuals.

In the future, a third dose of a variant-specific vaccination could be an option. These vaccines can deliver an update version of the virus antigen that our immune system recognizes on the virus’ surface to refocus our immune systems on new strains such as Delta. This would be similar to the annual flu vaccine update. Moderna, Pfizer and other vaccine makers have variant-specific COVID-19 vaccinations that are currently being tested in clinical trials.

Other measures are still important to protect immunocompromised patients from COVID-19, even with the third dose. They include staying home, minimizing face-to-face contact, immuneglobulin replacement treatment that replaces the antibodies required to fight disease and high vaccine uptake by the rest of their community. It is clear that a third dose would be especially beneficial to this group.